(ĐTĐ) - Think back to the last time you bumped your elbow walking through a doorway. After shouting “Ow!” what was the first thing you did? Likely, you instinctively rubbed the sore area to ease the pain. This is the idea behind massage therapy – relieving pain and promoting wellness through touch.

Massage therapy is the manipulation of soft tissue in the body. Patients seek massage therapy for a wide variety reasons, including pain management, depression, anxiety, and rehabilitation from injury, as well as for non-clinical relaxation. There are many varieties of massage therapy that one may receive. Depending on the area being treated and the patient’s preferences, the patient may either lie or sit. Massage therapists may work in offices, spas, or even travel to the patients’ homes. The duration of the massage may vary based on the patient’s needs, but an hour is a common length.

Massage has been widely used for thousands of years, but it is just recently becoming commonly used as complementary treatment for a wide variety of medical conditions. Medical scientists are only just beginning to really study why massage therapy works so well for such a wide breadth of conditions, however it is clear that massage relaxes muscle tissue and improves circulation. While most people can benefit from this therapeutic method, there are some people for whom massage can be inappropriate. These people include those suffering from any of the following conditions:

  • Bleeding disorders or those taking blood-thinning medications
  • Burns or open sores
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Recent or still-healing fractures
  • Severe osteoporosis

There is not much that one has to do to prepare for an appointment with a massage therapist. The therapist will likely ask for a complete medical history, and then discuss the methods he or she intends to use to help achieve the desired results. A patient who is new to massage may experience some mild soreness during the manipulation of the soft tissue, but overall massage should not be a painful or unpleasant experience. If you find anything your massage therapist is doing to be painful, speak up. Communicate with your regular doctor about the massage treatments you’re receiving. While massage can have tremendous benefits, it is important to remember that this is a complementary therapy and is not to replace traditional medical treatment.

Source Pain.com

(ĐTĐ) - Acupuncture is a type of traditional medicine that first began back in the East. It’s thought that it might have begun around 3300 BCE. Although the exact time is uncertain.

It’s thought that energy flows through our body in a specific pattern. When this route is disrupted, vital organs aren’t receiving oxygen and other essential nutrients. This is what causes disorders to occur. So an acupuncturist will apply either needles, heat or lasers to specific areas of the body known as meridians to remove the obstacle.

This will stimulate the nerves, tissue, muscle and organs, which will activate the body’s natural defense and restore the natural energy flow, qi. The end result would be relief of your symptoms, and improve overall wellbeing.

There is a total of 12 meridians, the one chosen depends on the symptoms that you are experiencing.

How Do These Little Needles Cure So Many Aliments?

Although the exact reason why acupuncture works so well is uncertain, there are several theories. They include gate, Neurotransmitter, Augmentation of Immunity and Circulatory

Doctors believe that the nervous system sends messages to your brain through what is known as the gate. When the gate has so many different messages it will become overloaded and stop sending the pain messages. So acupuncture overwhelms the smaller gates, causing it to shut down. This is what’s known as the gate theory.

With the neurotransmitter theory,it’s thought that the chemical neurotransmitter nor adrenaline and Serotonin is stimulated by acupuncture, this increases the body’s natural response while decreasing their symptoms.

The endorphin theory is similar to the one above. Doctors believe that acupuncture causes your body to release endorphins. The increased endorphin level decreases our symptoms.

The Augmentation of immunity theory states that acupuncture raises the levels of white blood cells, hormones, triglycerides, prostaglandins, gamma globulins and other essential body levels. This increase helps the body to create homeostasis, an overall wellbeing.

Circulatory theory believes acupuncture will either open the blood vessels wider or constrict then, make them smaller. This fluctuation is what causes the symptom reduction.


What Can Acupuncture be used for?

People use Acupuncture to treat numerous disorders. Because I’m unable to list them all I’ve chosen the most common. If your illness isn’t listed, please check with an acupuncturist first, before giving up on this treatment choice.

Some of the most common include; pain reduction in the back, neck, face and shoulder. It’s also shown to relieve headaches, migraines, sports injuries, muscle spasms and contractures. Many use it for disorders like; TMD.

Fibromyalgia, neuropathy, myofacial, sciatica, radiculitis, arthritis, neuritis, tendonitis, neuralgia, osteoarthritis, bell’s palsy, sexual issues, infertility, gynecological problems, respiratory illness, insomnia, allergies, PMS, skin diseases, digestive issues and cancer treatment.

Some say it helps with constipation, nausea and vomiting. It is known to reduce stress and depression, it has helped people stop smoking and it helps strengthens your immune system.

How Bad Does This Treatment Hurt?

If you’re like many, the thought of having needles poked into your skin makes you a little squeamish. It did me too at first, but then I did a little research and found out the needles that’s used is extremely tiny in diameter.

In fact the largest needle an acupuncturist might use is 0.0137 inches thick. Where a needle used to draw blood is 1. 5 inches in diameter. That is a huge difference. Many I talked to say they don’t feel the needles, because they are so tiny

Does it really work or is it a hoax?

Many people use to believe that acupuncture has the placebo effect. Recently MRI’s have been done during an acupuncture. It has shown a difference in brain wave patters during the procedure.

I met a lady who sees an acupuncturist for cancer treatment. She’s in her 10th year of remission.

How is the Areas Chosen?

Since there are specific connected energy routes that flows through our body, to our vital organs. The doctor will look at your medical history, and the symptoms that you’re experiencing.With his knowledge in traditional oriental medicine, new research and experience, he will choose the areas accordingly.

How Often Should I Go?

The amount of needed treatments depends on three things; the type of disorder, the severity and how long the person’s been suffering. This is why some only require a few treatments, while others may take a little longer. The acupuncturist can recommend the specific amount of time you will need. Of course, as your body heals, your need for acupuncture will decrease.

Does This Treatment Take a Long Time?

The length of the visit depends on the treatment plan. Generally it doesn’t last for more than an hour. Once the needles are placed the doctor may choose to leave them up to forty-five minutes. Again it depends on the severity of the disorder.

Are There Things I Should and shouldn’t do Beforehand?

Before the Treatment

If you feel hungry you’re allowed to eat a small light meal.

Be sure to wear something that is loose and comfortable. So it will be easier to do your treatment.


Don’t drink, take drugs, put yourself in a stressful situation, or do too much activity for 6 hours. Many acupuncturist will advise you to use these 6 hours to rest.

Make sure you jot down any changes you’re feeling and questions you might have.

Don’t eat a large meal for at least an hour afterwards.

What will happen when I Arrive?

Once you arrive the acupuncturist will get your full medical history. They will also ask you about your symptoms and ask you about personal habits. The acupuncturist will palpate different areas of your body and check pulse points. All of these steps will help the acupuncturist determine your plan of care.

The Prickly Truth

Acupuncture began in China thousands of years ago. Since making its way to the western culture its cured people of numerous illnesses. Although many don’t believe this treatment’s helpful, MRI and personal testimony have proven otherwise.

Source Chronicbodypain.net

(ĐTĐ) - Many people are uncomfortable with the idea of taking a pill regularly for pain relief. Here are some alternatives.


Merck & Co.'s decision to discontinue the pain relief drug Vioxx has left millions of people scrambling for an alternative for pain management. According to the American Pain Foundation, there are more than 50 million Americans suffering from chronic pain, or 25 million experiencing acute pain as a result of injury or surgery. Worldwide, 2 million people were taking Vioxx at the time of the recall.

If you're a pain sufferer, here's some good news: Plenty of options exist to ease aches, and many of them don't come in pill form. After all, Vioxx only entered the market in 1999, and arthritis, menstrual cramps, post-surgery pain, and other aches and pains soothed by the drug have been around and managed for a much longer time period.

Only a few common alternatives are discussed in this article. There are dozens, if not hundreds, more pain relief approaches out there. Many of them may be snake oil in various shapes and sizes, and we know that has been around for ages.

Before trying any pain relief approaches, it is important to talk with your doctor. Some therapies may not be safe or appropriate for you, even if they are of the nonpharmaceutical kind. Different factors need to be considered before undergoing any treatment, including your medical condition and history.

Also keep in mind that none of the resources available are perfect pain remedies. They may not provide complete pain relief. They do not work the same for everyone. You may have to try a number of different strategies and combine some of them before finding an acceptable level of pain relief. As with any treatment, there may also be risks and side effects.

A benefit of trying out alternative therapies is that you may find a pain relief option that works for you. We all know how priceless pain relief can be. So don't give up on finding respite for your suffering.

Take an active part in your rehabilitation, advises Penney Cowan, executive director and founder of the American Chronic Pain Association. She says people need to ask themselves, "What's my role in regaining control of my life and actually living with this pain?"

"A big part of pain management is feeling like you have to regain control of your life, because the pain has taken over," says Cowan.

Pain Relief With Physical Therapy

There is no one solution to pain, but at least one expert says physical therapy is highly effective. "I recommend it to almost all of my patients," says Hayes Wilson, MD, chief rheumatologist at Piedmont Hospital in Atlanta, and national medical adviser to the Arthritis Foundation.

Physical therapists teach people how to take care of themselves. "If you give a man a fish, he eats for a day. If you teach him how to fish, he eats for the rest of his life," says Wilson, noting physical therapists are like fishing instructors.

He is not far off. According to the American Physical Therapy Association, physical therapists teach patients self-management skills. In the case of arthritis, therapists show people how to deal with pain in day-to-day life. They show people how to build up strength and improve range of motion, and how to make sensible decisions about activities to prevent arthritic flare-ups.

Yet physical therapy is far from a panacea. In patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis, a condition that can shave 10 to 15 years off life, Wilson sees immune-modulating drugs as a first choice of treatment, and physical therapy as an adjunct.

In patients with osteoarthritis, the condition could worsen if swelling isn't fully addressed. "I think physical therapy does decrease inflammation to a certain extent, but I think the most dramatic changes to inflammation are made pharmacologically (with medicine)," says Wilson.

In looking for a physical therapist, it is important to first find out whether your health care plan covers visits. Next, look for a trained professional, someone who is licensed to practice in your state. It is also helpful to find a therapist who has experience in dealing with your particular condition.


Pain Relief With Acupuncture

Easing pain with needles may sound agonizing, but acupuncture is an ancient form of pain relief.

Acupuncture originated in China thousands of years ago. In traditional practice, needles are pierced through the skin in specific areas to improve the flow of energy throughout the body. Western scientists suspect the practice may stimulate the release of chemicals, which can either soothe pain, or prompt the body's natural healing systems.

The National Institutes of Health has sponsored a number of studies on acupuncture, including its affect on arthritis, inflammation, and chronic pain. Until researchers can better pinpoint how acupuncture works in pain relief, physicians such as Wilson say the patient's faith in the procedure has a lot to do with its success.

"I think it can work for anybody, but it's going to work for the people who believe in it," Wilson says, adding that many treatment strategies are effective in part because of the patients' belief in them. "People who don't believe they're going to get better, I think, are less likely to get through."

Acupuncture is not recommended for people who are taking blood thinners, or for those with a bleeding disorder. Risks of the procedure involve dangers inherent in needle use, including spread of an infectious disease, piercing of organs, minor bleeding, and broken or forgotten needles.

Pain Relief With Stress Management

"The reign of pain falls mainly in the brain," jokes Dennis Turk, professor of anesthesiology and pain research at the University of Washington School of Medicine.

Yet there is a truth to Turk's joke. "You can never have pain without a conscious organism to interpret it," he says, referring to the brain. With this organ, people make sense out of noxious sensations and determine how bothersome they really are. A host of factors, including psychological ones, can affect how people perceive sensations, what they decide to do about them, and how they interact with their world.

Stress is a big psychological factor that can intensify the perception of pain. When people are distressed, their muscles tend to become tense and may arouse already tender tissues. On an emotional level, the pressure may amplify their perception of pain. "Emotional arousal or stress may lead them to interpret their situation as being more difficult, and may make them avoid certain types of activities, because they're afraid it's going to make their pain worse," says Turk.

To alleviate the pressure, Turk recommends trying to change the source of stress. For instance, if you find yourself always arguing with your spouse, it may help to find a way to communicate with him or her instead.

If it is not possible to change the source of tension, try distracting yourself with enjoyable activities such as spending time with friends, watching a movie, or listening to music. Participating in something pleasurable may shift focus away from pain.

Another strategy is to unwind. Relaxation techniques include deep breathing, progressive muscle relaxation, meditation, visualization, massage, yoga, and Tai Chi. These practices have been proven to be effective.

Some people have found stress relief by joining support groups or by getting individual counseling on how to best cope with their stress or ailment.

For the most part, many of these stress-management strategies have been proven to be effective. Yet not everyone can benefit from each of the techniques. Different methods work for different people. For instance, there is good evidence that people who go to support groups experience pain reduction and dramatic improvements in their physical and emotional functioning. Nonetheless, a person who doesn't want to talk about their ailment would not be a good candidate for a support group.

Pain Relief With Exercise

Many people in pain often avoid exercise because movement hurts too much. Yet their inactivity may actually worsen their condition.

"The human body was designed to be in motion no matter what state of health you're in," says Sal Fichera, an exercise physiologist, certified personal trainer, and owner of ForzaFitness.com in New York City. "If you let your body become inactive, then you will let your body degenerate."

Muscle degeneration can lead to other problems such as diminishing bone density, depression, and a weakened heart. In contrast, regular exercise can help keep joints flexible and strong, and better able to deal with arthritic pain. Plus, physical activity promotes the release of mood-enhancing chemicals in the body that can help diminish the perception of pain.

There are three types of exercise recommended for arthritis patients. The first, flexibility workouts, involve stretches that can help enhance range of motion. The second, cardiovascular or aerobic workouts, includes walking, water exercises, and cycling. The third, strength conditioning, includes isometric or isotonic workouts.

Isometric workouts are static exercises that involve applying resistance without moving the joint. For example, if you stand up against the wall and press your hands against it, you are working out your chest muscle. On the other hand, isotonic workouts use the full range of motion. They include bicep curls and leg extensions.

To decrease pain and prevent further injury, it is important to apply appropriate effort in proper form. Not all exercises are right for everyone. If one type of exercise does not work for you, there are always other options. Before starting a fitness program, make sure to consult with your doctor and with a trained fitness professional.


Pain Relief With Diet

Here's extra incentive if you've been thinking about losing weight: Shedding excess pounds could help reduce the risk of pain.

"If you're overweight and de-conditioned, your joints take a major hit, because of the increased poundage that your joints have to carry," says Elton Strauss, MD, chief of orthopaedic trauma and adult reconstruction at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City.

There are plenty of weight loss programs available, but keep in mind that regular physical activity and a nutritious, well-balanced diet are proven methods for weight loss.

On the other extreme, being underweight or weight loss with a poor diet and inactivity can exacerbate pain. "Your hormone levels are off," explains Lisa Dorfman, MSRD, a sports nutritionist and spokeswoman for the American Dietetic Association (ADA). Normal flow of hormones can help the body combat aches, and activate the body's own healing systems.

Dorfman says people need not become vegetarians for pain relief. She suggests limiting intake of animal protein and saturated fat, and beefing up on foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals.

Christine Gerbstadt, MD, RD, another spokesperson for the ADA, agrees. She also suggests eating more whole grains and organically produced foods. She says steroid hormones and preservatives may negatively stimulate the immune system.

Pain Relief With Dietary Supplements

There is promising evidence that two types of dietary supplements -- Chondroitin sulfate and glucosamine -- may help relieve pain associated with osteoarthritis. Yet more research needs to be done on their long-term safety and effectiveness.

Side effects of chondroitin are rare, but could include headache, motor uneasiness, euphoria, hives, rash, photosensitivity, hair loss, and breathing difficulties. People with bleeding disorders or those taking blood thinners should consult with their doctor before taking the supplement.

Side effects of glucosamine include upset stomach, drowsiness, insomnia, headache, skin reactions, sun sensitivity, and nail toughening. Some glucosamine products may be made with shellfish, and may cause adverse reaction in people with shellfish allergies.

Bioelectric Therapy

Some arthritis patients may find some pain relief with bioelectric therapy. "The people who benefit from bioelectric therapy are people who tend to have mild muscle pain," says Wilson, noting that people with joint inflammation, such as those with rheumatoid arthritis, may not get as much benefit.

In bioelectric therapy, a dose of electric current is applied to the skin to help distract the brain from sensing pain. The therapy tries to overload the brain with sensations to divert its focus on the original source of pain.

There may be skin irritation and redness as a result of bioelectric therapy. This strategy is not recommended for people who have a pacemaker, are pregnant, have blood clots in the arms and legs, and have a bacterial infection.

Strauss at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City, warns against its use. "I don't think there are studies out there that show it works," he says.

Live a Healthy Life

In some cases, your physician may suggest combining nonmedicinal options with drug therapy. Try not to rule out medication altogether. The ideal goal of pain relief treatment, after all, is not just to alleviate suffering, but also to keep you alive and healthy.

Remember: The simplest -- yet often the most challenging -- strategy for pain relief involves eating right, sleeping enough, exercising, and managing stress. "If you look at pain management skills, they are nothing more than good living skills," says Cowan. "If we don't live our life and really pay attention, the pain overcomes us."

Source WebMD Feature

Why Exercise?

If you have a knee injury, you may worry that exercising could cause more damage or pain. But the opposite is true: Strengthening the muscles that support your knee, and keeping them flexible, is the best way to prevent further injuries. Start slowly, and build your strength over time. Some muscle soreness is normal when you exercise. But you shouldn’t feel more pain, especially in your knee. If you do, stop and contact your doctor.

Getty Rf Photo Of Woman Stretching With Chair

Warm Up Your Knee

Stretching can help your leg muscles perform better. Warm up before you stretch, though. You can ride a stationary bike for about 5 minutes, take a brisk 2-minute walk while pumping your arms, or do 15-20 wall push-ups followed by the same number of calf raises. It will help you get more out of your workout and lower your risk of injury.

Getty Rf Photo Of Woman On Stationary Bike

Straight Leg Raises

If your knee’s not at its best, start with an easy strengthening exercise for your quadriceps, the muscles in the front of the thigh. This move puts little to no strain on the knee: Lie on your back on the floor or another flat surface. Bend one knee and place your foot flat on the floor. Keeping the other leg straight, raise it to the height of the opposite knee. Repeat 10-15 times for three sets.

Webmd Photo Of Straight Leg Raise

Hamstring Curls

Your hamstrings are the muscles along the back of your thigh. Lie flat on your stomach. Slowly bring your heels as close to your buttocks as you can, and hold that position. Do three sets of 15. You can also do this exercise standing while holding on to a chair. If this becomes easy, you can add ankle weights, slowly increasing the weight from 1 to 3 to 5 pounds.

Webmd Rf Photo Of Hamstring Curl

Prone Straight Leg Raises

Lie on your stomach with your legs straight. Tighten the muscles in your bottom and the hamstring of one leg, and lift toward the ceiling. Hold 3-5 seconds, lower, and repeat. Do 10-15 lifts and switch sides. You can add ankle weights as you gain strength. You should not feel back pain. If you do, limit how high you lift up. If it’s still painful, stop and talk to your doctor.

Getty Rf Photo Of Prone Straight Leg Raise

Close the Chain

Wall squats are “closed chain” exercises, advanced strengthening moves that keep your feet on the floor. Stand with your back against a wall, your feet about shoulder-width apart. Slowly bend your knees, keeping your back and pelvis against the wall. Hold for 5-10 seconds. Don’t bend too deeply or you could injure your knee. If you feel pressure or discomfort in your knees, adjust your position. Repeat the exercise, and try to hold the sit position a few seconds longer each time.

Webmd Photo Of Wall Squat

Calf Raises

Stand facing the back of a sturdy chair, other support such as the back of a couch, or a wall bar at the gym. You can also do this on the stairs, holding on to the banister with your heels hanging off the edge of the step. Slowly raise the heels as high as you can, then lower. Do three sets of 10-15. If this move becomes easy, lift one foot slightly off the floor, placing all your weight on the other foot.

Webmd Photo Of Calf Raise


Place one foot on a step bench, platform, or the lowest step on a staircase. Keeping your pelvis level, bend your knee and slowly lower the opposite foot to the floor. Lightly touch your toe to the floor, then rise back up. Repeat 10-15 times, then switch legs. If this exercise becomes easy, use a higher step, or touch your heel instead of your toe.

Webmd Photo Of Step Up

Hip Abduction

Lie on one side with legs stacked. Bend the bottom leg for support. Straighten the top leg (without locking the knee), and raise it to 45 degrees. Hold for 5 seconds, lower and relax briefly, then repeat 10-15 times. Switch sides and repeat. Vary the exercise by pointing the toe of your upper leg slightly toward the floor as you raise it.

Getty Rf Photo Of Hip Abduction

Leg Presses

Sit on a leg-press machine with your back and head against the support and your feet flat on the foot plate. Adjust the seat back until you feel comfortable. Slowly push the plate away from you until your legs are extended (but do not lock your knees). Bend your knees and return to your starting position. Do three sets of 10-15 reps. (Ask a member of the gym staff for assistance the first time you do this.)

Getty Rf Photo Of Leg Press

No-No's for Your Knee

No exercise should ever cause or increase pain. Remember: Muscle soreness after a vigorous workout is normal, but any kind of sharp, shooting, or sudden pain in the muscles or joints is a sign that something is wrong. If you feel pain while exercising, stop right away and check with your doctor.

Getty Rf Photo Of Hurt Knee

Aerobic Exercise That Works for Your Knee

If you have knee pain, avoid exercises that aggravate it. This may include high-impact activities such as running or intense aerobics. Use a common-sense approach and notice what feels right for you. For example, some people find that elliptical machines hurt, while others do not. A great activity for people with sore knees is swimming: Your body in water weighs 1/6 of what it does on land.

Getty Rf Photo Of Woman Swimming

Source WebMD.com

Bioelectric therapy is a safe, drug-free treatment option for people in pain. It is used to treat some chronic pain and acute pain conditions. It relieves pain by blocking pain messages to the brain. When you are injured, pain receptors send a message to the central nervous system (the brain and spinal cord). The message is registered as pain by certain cells in the body. Using bioelectric currents, bioelectric therapy relieves pain by interrupting pain signals before they reach the brain. Bioelectric therapy also prompts the body to produce endorphins which help to relieve pain.

What Conditions Are Treated With Bioelectric Therapy?

Bioelectric therapy can be used to treat chronic and acute pain conditions including:

  • Complex regional pain syndrome, also known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy or RSD.
  • Back pain.
  • Muscle pain.
  • Headaches and migraines.
  • Disorders of blood flow in the upper and lower limbs.
  • Arthritis.
  • Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) syndrome (affects the jaw).
  • Disorders of the nervous system, such as diabetic neuropathy.
  • Pain and ulcers of the skin resulting from poor circulation or scleroderma (a chronic condition that can cause thickening or hardening of the skin).

Bioelectric therapy isn't right for everyone. It is not recommended for people who:

  • Have a pacemaker.
  • Are pregnant.
  • Have thrombosis (blood clots in the arms or legs).
  • Have a bacterial infection.

How Effective Is Bioelectric Therapy?

Bioelectric therapy is effective in providing temporary pain control, but it should only be a part of a total pain management program. When used along with conventional pain-relieving medications, bioelectric treatment may reduce the dose of some pain medications by up to 50%.

What Happens During Bioelectric Therapy?

During bioelectric therapy, several small, flat rubber adhesive discs (called electrodes) are applied to your skin at prescribed areas to be treated. Sometimes rubber suction cups (called vaso pneumatic devices) may be applied to your skin. The electrodes are hooked up to a computer that programs the precise treatment dosage required. High frequency alternating electrical currents (around 4,000 cycles per second) are then applied to the electrodes. The currents move through the skin quickly with little discomfort. During treatment, your response to the electrical stimulation is measured.

When electricity is applied, a mild vibrating, tingling sensation is common. This sensation should not be uncomfortable; you should feel a relaxing, soothing pain relief. As the currents are applied, you will provide verbal feedback to the clinician. If the sensation becomes too strong, please tell the clinician right away so the treatment can be adjusted. You should be comfortable and enjoy the treatment, which lasts about 20 minutes.

What Are the Side Effects of Bioelectric Therapy?

In rare cases, skin irritation and redness can occur under the electrodes during bioelectric therapy.

How Often Should I Get Bioelectric Therapy?

The number of bioelectric therapy sessions required depends on each person's condition and response to treatment. One bioelectric therapy session does not usually result in pain relief. Therapy usually begins with about five sessions in one week, followed by three treatments per week. A normal course of treatment includes 16 to 20 treatments.

How Do I Prepare for Bioelectric Therapy?

If you are taking insulin or blood-thinning medications, your doctor may give you specific instructions to follow before getting bioelectric therapy.

You may be asked to fast before the procedure, and you may need to make arrangements for someone to drive you home after treatment.

Source International Spine Intervention Society