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The advent of the multidetector CT (MDCT) scanner has increased the applicability of this imaging technique for the assessment of the musculoskeletal system. This technology allows for the acquisition of large data set in the axial plane that can be reconstructed in multiple planes of imaging with the use of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) algorithm. 

 

It is clear, after multiple research studies to assess the usefulness of imaging in low back pain, that uncomplicated acute low back pain is a benign, self-limited condition that does not warrant any imaging studies. The vast majority of patients are back to their usual activities within 30 days. Radiographic evaluation of the lumbar spine includes frontal and lateral radiographs. These are indicated in the evaluation of back pain and weight loss, after mild trauma in patients older than 50 y/o, in patients with unexplained fever, immunosuppression, history of cancer, prolonged use of steroids and focal neurologic, or disabling symptoms. Oblique views are useful for the assessment of defects to the pars interarticularis when suspecting spondylolysis and for the evaluation of the nerve root foramina. The relative radiation dose level for a routine radiographic examination of the lumbar spine is between 1 and 10 mSv (56). Although plain radiographs remain valuable for detecting many types of spine fractures and degenerative changes, the high resolution of osseous and soft-tissue structures provided by CT and MRI has made these modalities invaluable for the diagnosis of degenerative, traumatic, neoplastic, and infectious diseases of the spinal column and spinal cord. 

 

The following section will be dedicated to brain imaging relevant to rehabilitation. Emphasis is placed on the imaging of ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, head trauma, and common degenerative diseases. The imaging of brain neoplasms and infections will not be covered in this section, as it is beyond the scope of this text. 

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