Indications

Intramuscular nerve blockade is used for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic treatment of non–velocity-dependent muscle tone, flexor spasm, and dystonia.

Techniques

After informed consent is obtained, the patient is positioned comfortably to allow optimal access to the muscles involved. The patient is prepared in a standard aseptic fashion over an area large enough to allow palpation of landmarks, and sterile technique is used throughout the procedure. A skin wheal is raised over the main muscle bulk of the muscles to be injected. A 1½- to 4-in. (4- to 10-cm) insulated needle is advanced through the wheal, with a nerve stimulator used to localize the motor nerve branches or motor points. The current is reduced until the minimum current is required to elicit muscle contraction. When the needle tip is within 1 mm of the motor nerve, and after negative aspiration, 1 to 2 mL of 4% to 6% phenol is injected for neurolysis (see Figure).

Comments

Intramuscular nerve or motor point blockade is reported to have duration of effect from 1 to 36 months (median, 11.5 months). No dose-response or dose-duration of effects relationship has been demonstrated for motor point blocks (51,52). The needle is positioned to produce the maximal twitch at the lowest stimulus. The needle is usually adjacent to the nerve when 0.5 to 0.1 mA produces motor stimulation with an insulated needle, and 1 mA with an uninsulated needle. The motor points of each muscle cluster at the midpoint of the muscle fibers.

Complications

Significant complications are rare with intramuscular nerve injections, and transitory side effects include pain of mild intensity, tenderness and swelling at injection sites, and dysesthesia. Inadvertent neurolysis of a mixed nerve results in painful paresthesia in about 11% of patients.

Refferences

Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Principles and Practice

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Indications

Saphenous nerve blockade is used to diagnose and treat pain disorders of the saphenous nerve distribution in the foot.

Techniques

After informed consent is obtained, the patient is placed in a prone position with the foot elevated on a pillow. The patient is prepared in a standard aseptic fashion over an area large enough to allow palpation of landmarks, and sterile technique is used throughout the procedure. A 1-in. (2.5-cm), 25-gauge needle is inserted immediately above and anteriorly to the medial malleolus and advanced to the anterior border of the tibia. After negative aspiration, 3 to 5 mL of local anesthetic is injected over the course of the needle to block the saphenous nerve (see Fig. 67-19).

FIGURE 67-19. Nerve blocks at the ankle. Approach for nerve injection and neural blockade at the ankle.

Comments

The saphenous nerve is the terminal branch of the femoral nerve. It becomes cutaneous at the lateral aspect of the knee joint and follows the great saphenous vein to the medial malleolus. It supplies cutaneous innervation to the medial aspect of the lower leg anterior to the medial malleolus and the medial aspect of the foot, and may extend as far forward as the metatarsophalangeal joint.

Complications

Hematoma and intravascular injection are possible due to the close proximity of the great saphenous vessels. If an arterial puncture occurs, prolonged direct pressure is usually adequate to prevent the development of a hematoma.

Refferences

Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Principles and Practice

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Indications

Superficial peroneal nerve blockade is used to diagnose and treat pain disorders of the superficial peroneal nerve distribution in the foot.

Techniques

After informed consent is obtained, the patient is placed in a supine position with the foot elevated on a pillow. The patient is prepared in a standard aseptic fashion over an area large enough to allow palpation of landmarks, and sterile technique is used throughout the procedure. A 1-in. (2.5- cm), 25-gauge needle is inserted just laterally to the anterior border of the tibia at the proximal level of the lateral malleolus. The needle is carefully advanced to the superior aspect of the lateral malleolus. After negative aspiration, 5 mL of local anesthetic is injected over the course of the needle to block all the branches of the superficial peroneal nerve (see Fig. 67-19).

FIGURE 67-19. Nerve blocks at the ankle. Approach for nerve injection and neural blockade at the ankle.

Comments

The superficial peroneal nerve exits the deep fascia of the leg at the anterior aspect of the distal two thirds of the leg. From that point, the superficial peroneal nerve runs subcutaneously to supply the dorsum of the foot and toes, with the exception of the contiguous surfaces of the great and second toes.

Complications

Complications are rare with the superficial peroneal nerve block.

Refferences

Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Principles and Practice

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Indications

Deep peroneal nerve blockade is used to diagnose and treat pain disorders in the deep peroneal nerve distribution of the foot.

Techniques

After informed consent is obtained, the patient is placed in a supine position with the foot elevated on a pillow. The patient is prepared in a standard aseptic fashion over an area large enough to allow palpation of landmarks, and sterile technique is used throughout the procedure. A 1-in. (2.5-cm), 25-gauge needle is inserted between the extensor hallucis longus tendon and the anterior tibial tendon, just superior to the level of the malleoli. The extensor hallucis longus tendon can easily be identified by having the patient extend the great toe. If the artery can be palpated, the needle is placed just laterally to the artery. The needle is advanced toward the tibia, and after negative aspiration, 3 to 5 mL of local anesthetic is injected deep to the fascia to block the deep peroneal nerve (see Fig. 67-19).

FIGURE 67-19. Nerve blocks at the ankle. Approach for nerve injection and neural blockade at the ankle.

Comments

The deep peroneal nerve travels down the anterior portion of the interosseus membrane of the leg and extends midway between the malleoli onto the dorsum of the foot. At this point, the nerve lies laterally to the extensor hallucis longus tendon and the anterior tibial artery. It supplies motor innervation to the short extensors of the toes and cutaneous innervation to adjacent areas of the first and second toes.

Complications

Hematoma and intravascular injection are possible due to the close proximity of the anterior tibial vessels. If an arterial puncture occurs, prolonged direct pressure is usually adequate to prevent the development of a hematoma.

Refferences

Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Principles and Practice

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Indications

Sural nerve blockade is used to diagnose and treat pain disorders in the sural nerve distribution.

Techniques

After informed consent is obtained, the patient is placed in a prone position with the foot supported by a pillow. The patient is prepared in a standard aseptic fashion over an area large enough to allow palpation of landmarks, and sterile technique is used throughout the procedure. A skin wheal is raised lateral to the Achilles tendon at the level of the lateral malleolus. A 1-in. (2.5-cm), 25-gauge needle is inserted to a depth of 1 cm, directed toward the lateral border of the fibula. If a paresthesia is elicited, 2 to 3 mL of a local anesthetic is injected after negative aspiration. If a paresthesia cannot be elicited, after negative aspiration, 3 to 5 mL of local anesthetic is injected subcutaneously in a fan distribution from the lateral border of the Achilles tendon to the lateral border of the fibula to block the sural nerve (see Fig. 67-19).

FIGURE 67-19. Nerve blocks at the ankle. Approach for nerve injection and neural blockade at the ankle.

Comments

The sural nerve is a cutaneous nerve that contains fibers from both the tibial and common peroneal nerves. It lies subcutaneous somewhat distally to the middle of the leg and travels with the short saphenous vein behind and below the lateral malleolus. It supplies the posterolateral surface of the leg, the lateral side of the foot, and the lateral aspect of the fifth toe.

Complications

Intraneural injection may result in nerve damage. Severe pain on injection suggests the possibility of an intraneural injection, and the needle should be immediately repositioned. Hematoma and intravascular injection are possible, owing to the close proximity of the sural vessels. If an arterial puncture occurs, prolonged direct pressure is usually adequate to prevent the development of a hematoma.

Refferences

Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation - Principles and Practice

See also

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