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Category: Medications

Fibromyalgia Medications

Fibromyalgia Medications

(ĐTĐ) – There are many different medications used to treat fibromyalgia symptoms, including pain medicines, sleeping pills, and antidepressants. Some fibromyalgia medicines help ease pain. Others boost mood and improve sleep. Working with your doctor will help you find the right fibromyalgia medication to add to your treatment regimen. That way, you can manage your symptoms effectively.   What is the initial treatment for fibromyalgia? The first medication doctors will often try for people with fibromyalgia is an antidepressant, which…

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Prescription or Over the Counter, Pain Pill Mistakes Common

Prescription or Over the Counter, Pain Pill Mistakes Common

(ĐTĐ) – Sharing prescriptions, hoarding expired drugs, and more no-nos for taking prescription and over-the-counter pain medications.   It’s been a hard day, and Joe’s back is killing him. His wife has some Percocet left over from a trip to the dentist, and there’s that big bottle of Tylenol under the sink, so Joe grabs a couple of each and washes them down with a slug of beer. Luckily for Joe, he’s a fictional character invented for this article. But…

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Topical Anesthesia

Topical Anesthesia

Overview Many options to deliver anesthesia have developed over the last several decades. Administration of topical anesthetics to control pain associated with procedures such as laceration repair may avoid the need for infiltrative local anesthesia injections and associated pain from the injections. Topical anesthesia also avoids the risk of wound margin distortion that exists with infiltrative injection administration. Many dosage forms exist (eg, gels, sprays, creams, ointments, patches) and provide the clinician with precise options for application under various circumstances….

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Anesthesia

Anesthesia

Anesthesia Local anesthetics are classified into 2 groups: the ester group and the amide group. The classification is based on the chemical structure of the intermediate chain. This structural difference affects the pathway by which local anesthetics are metabolized and the allergic potential. Ester anesthetics are listed in the Table below. They are metabolized by hydrolysis, which depends on the plasma enzyme pseudocholinesterase. Some patients have a rare genetic defect in the structure of this enzyme and may be unable to…

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Pain Medications: OTC and Prescription

Pain Medications: OTC and Prescription

Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers Over-the-counter (OTC) pain relievers include: Acetaminophen (Tylenol, Aspirin Free Excedrin) Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs; aspirin, Motrin, Aleve and Orudis KT) Topical Corticosteroids (Cortaid and Cortizone) Both acetaminophen and NSAIDs reduce fever and relieve pain caused by muscle aches and stiffness, but only NSAIDs can also reduce inflammation (swelling and irritation). Acetaminophen and NSAIDs also work differently. NSAIDs relieve pain by reducing the production of prostaglandins, which are hormone-like substances that cause pain. Acetaminophen works on the parts…

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Pain Medications: Opioid

Pain Medications: Opioid

(ĐTĐ) – Most medications have a maximum dose. Usually, the maximum dose is one that you cannot exceed without suffering harm. In the case of most pain medications, taking more than the maximum dose will not increase the pain relief but may cause toxic side effects such as stomach ulcers, kidney damage, liver damage, chemical imbalance in the bloodstream, or death.   Strong opioid medications are slightly different in this regard, and this is fortunate for people who suffer from…

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Morphine

Morphine

(ĐTĐ) – Morphine (INN) (MS Contin, MSIR, Avinza, Kadian, Oramorph, Roxanol, Kapanol) is a potent opiate analgesic medication and is considered to be the prototypical opioid.   Morphine is the most abundant alkaloid found in opium, the dried sap (latex) derived from shallowly slicing the unripe seedpods of the opium, or common or edible, poppy, Papaver somniferum. Morphine was the first active principle purified from a plant source and is one of at least 50 alkaloids of several different types…

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Opiate

Opiate

(ĐTĐ) – In medicine, the term opiate describes any of the narcotic opioid alkaloids found as natural products in the opium poppy plant, as well as many semisynthetic chemical derivatives of such alkaloids. Overview   Harvesting the poppy pod. Opiates are so named because they are constituents or derivatives of constituents found in opium, which is processed from the latex sap of the opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. The major biologically active opiates found in opium are morphine, codeine, thebaine, and…

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Opioid

Opioid

(ĐTĐ) – An opioid is a chemical that works by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. The receptors in these organ systems mediate both the beneficial effects and the side effects of opioids.   The analgesic (painkiller) effects of opioids are due to decreased perception of pain, decreased reaction to pain as well as increased pain tolerance. The side effects of opioids include sedation, respiratory depression, and constipation. Opioids…

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COX-2 inhibitor

COX-2 inhibitor

(ĐTĐ) – COX-2 selective inhibitor is a form of Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that directly targets COX-2, an enzyme responsible for inflammation and pain.   Selectivity for COX-2 reduces the risk of peptic ulceration, and is the main feature of celecoxib, rofecoxib and other members of this drug class. COX-2 selectivity does not seem to reduce other adverse effects of NSAIDs (most notably an increased risk of renal failure), and some results have shown an increase in the risk for…

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