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Category: Musculoskeletal Imaging

The advent of the multidetector CT (MDCT) scanner has increased the applicability of this imaging technique for the assessment of the musculoskeletal system. This technology allows for the acquisition of large data set in the axial plane that can be reconstructed in multiple planes of imaging with the use of multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) algorithm.

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is not really an arthropathy because it spares synovium, articular cartilage, and articular osseous surfaces. It is a fairly common ossification process involving ligamentous and tendinous attachments to bones and occurs in 12% of the elderly (55). It most commonly affects the thoracic spine but also may involve the pelvis, foot, knee, and elbow. It can involve ossification of all the ligaments surrounding the vertebral bodies, particularly the anterior longitudinal ligament. Ossification of the posterior…

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Calcium Pyrophosphate Dehydrate Deposition Disease

Calcium Pyrophosphate Dehydrate Deposition Disease

It is also known as pseudogout and has the classic triad of pain, cartilage calcification, and joint destruction. Chondrocalcinosis at the knee, wrist, or symphysis pubis is virtually diagnostic of calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate deposition disease (CPPD) (Fig. 6-42). FIGURE 6-42. Chondrocalcinosis. Frontal radiograph of the right knee. Calcifications (arrows) are present within the medial and lateral tibiofemoral joint along the expected location of the meniscus. Refferences Source: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation – Principles and Practice

Gout Imaging

Gout Imaging

Gout is a metabolic disorder that most commonly involves the feet, especially the first metatarsophalangeal joint, as well as the ankles, knees, hands, and elbows in asymmetric fashion. It is produced by a deposition of monosodium urate crystals in tissues with a poor blood supply, such as cartilage, tendon sheaths, and bursae. The radiographic features of gout typically do not appear until after 4 to 6 years of episodic arthritis. Radiographic features characteristic of gout include the following: Tophi or…

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Rheumatoid Arthritis Imaging

Rheumatoid Arthritis Imaging

Rheumatoid arthritis is a connective tissue disorder of unknown etiology that can affect any synovial joint in the body. It is a bilaterally symmetric inflammatory degenerative disease that involves the following joints in order of decreasing frequency: : Small joints of the hands and feet, with the exception of the distal interphalangeal joints Knees Hips Cervical spine Shoulders Elbows The major radiographic findings include the following: : Symmetric periarticular soft-tissue swelling Juxta-articular osteoporosis proceeding to diffuse osteoporosis Erosions of the…

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Osteoarthritis Imaging

Osteoarthritis Imaging

Osteoarthritis or degenerative joint disease (DJD) is an asymmetric, usually bilateral mechanical degenerative process that involves joints significantly involved in weight bearing, such as the hip, knee, and spine, and those involved in frequent repetitive mechanical trauma, such as the distal interphalangeal joints of the fingers, trapezium–first metacarpal joint, trapezium- scaphoid joint, and metatarsophalangeal joint of the great toe. It is the most common arthritis, and it is estimated that 80% of the population with more than 50 years will…

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Other Ankle Abnormalities

Other Ankle Abnormalities

Technetium-99 scintigraphy has been valuable for detecting stress fractures of metatarsal and tarsal bones, and CT has high accuracy for detecting osteochondral fracture. In foot pain of undetermined etiology, however, MRI is an excellent screening modality because it permits direct evaluation of all osseous and soft-tissue structures. MRI is superior to any other modality in displaying tendon pathology (47,48). In tenosynovitis, MRI detects fluid within the tendon sheath as having moderate signal intensity on T1-weighted images and as hyperintense on…

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Ankle Ligament Imaging

Ankle Ligament Imaging

Previously, arthrography and tenography were the primary means of imaging ankle ligament injuries. They had the limitations of being invasive, providing only an indirect depiction of ankle ligament disruption, and yielding potentially false- negative results. MRI provides a noninvasive means of directly imaging all the ligaments in the vicinity of the ankle as well as all the other osseous and soft tissues. Axial MR images provide good visualization of the tibiofibular ligaments of the tibiofibular mortise. All the lateral collateral…

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Other Knee Abnormalities

Other Knee Abnormalities

Patellar tendinitis (jumper’s knee) is demonstrated by MRI as an area of edema within the patellar ligament (i.e., tendon) at its patellar (Fig. 6-28) or tibial tuberosity attachment. There is also associated edema in the adjacent subcutaneous fat or the infrapatellar fat pad. FIGURE 6-28. Sagittal T2-weighted fat suppressed image of patellar tendinitis. The arrow points to the increased signal intensity within the proximal tendon fibers and the adjacent infrapatellar fat pad. . Ischemic necrosis about the knee most commonly…

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Collateral Ligament Injuries

Collateral Ligament Injuries

The collateral ligaments are best visualized by coronal MR images (Fig. 6-27). The medial collateral ligament appears as a narrow low–signal-intensity band extending from the medial epicondyle of the femur to an attachment on the anteromedial aspect of the tibia 5 to 6 cm below the joint line. It is overlaid at its tibial attachment by the tendons of the pes anserinus, which are separated from it by an intervening anserine bursa that is not visualized unless it is inflamed….

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Cruciate Ligament Injuries

Cruciate Ligament Injuries

The cruciate ligaments are best visualized by sagittal or oblique sagittal MR images that display the full length of the ligaments (Fig. 6-24A). On straight sagittal images, the slender nature of the anterior cruciate ligament and its oblique course cause a volume-averaging effect that averages fat signal intensity about the ligaments with the normal low signal intensity of the ligament so that the anterior cruciate ligament frequently does not appear as a complete signal void. Furthermore, straight sagittal images typically…

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